Kamis, 23 Desember 2010


Assignment 1

Define the concepts ‘ Approach’, ‘Design’, ‘Procedure’, in relation to ‘Method’. Apply those concepts to two recognized second language-teaching practices, which require students and teacher interaction.

Method in general is the way on how to gain the goal. For example in sport training, a good trainer will teach the player some ways or techniques about how to be a good player so that they can win in a championship. The coach will use his/her methods or use another method from another success coach before. In other possibility he/she will do some experiments of some new methods. Dealing with teaching language, method is the emphasis on teacher’s ability to do what is he best way to get the good result on the student’s proficiency in linguistic. According to Rogers cited in Mangubhai (2004) stated that, “….methods are held to be fixed teaching systems with prescribed techniques and practices…”.

According to Anthony (1963) stated that, ‘…method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts, and all which is based upon the selected approach. An approach is axiomatic and a method is procedural. To reach the target of teaching a language, teacher needs to know about the concepts of Approach, Design and Procedure in relation to Method. By doing these ways in teaching second language, hopefully the target of teaching of the second language will have a good result on the all aspects of teaching and learning process.


Approach is the way on how teaching Second Language in the class is done. There are many ways can be done by teacher to reach the goals of teaching process. According to Anthony (1963) ‘ an approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning. An approach is axiomatic, it describes the nature of the subject matter to be taught…’.


In relation to methodology design means how second language teaching should be done and planned before a teacher teaching in the class. Relating to teaching methodology, it is very important, especially for the language teacher to make a plan what should be taught, how the teaching process will be and what material should be match with a certain condition. Before teaching a second language, a teacher should know the steps of teaching so the target of the teaching process will be gotten easily. Jane Willis (2001) “Materials designer have three distinct responsibilities: (a) providing appropriate language data for the course, (b) designing meaning-focused communication task arising out of those data that engaged leaner in meaning and that encourage genuine use of language, (c) designing form-focused language study exercise that learners’ awareness of typical and useful formal features of language”.


The objectives of the process are the final aims in every activity. In the terms of teaching there are objectives that are made by a teacher what will teacher do and what students should be able to do at the end of the activity. In making design of teaching some materials, the important thing is, what are the objectives of the teaching and learning process. For example when a language teacher wants to teach about the skill on how to read effective and efficiently, what method must be chosen by a teacher to get the good result at the end of the activity. In another case if a teacher emphasis on oral skill or writing skill of course there are different objectives. Gattegno (1972) cited in J.C Richard and T.S Rogers (2001) stated that, “Learning is not seen as the means of accumulating knowledge but the means of becoming a more proficient learner in whatever one is engaged”.


As a general overview said that syllabus is kind of instructional materials that are used in teaching activity. According to J.C Richard and T.S Rogers (2001) ‘ the terms syllabus has been used to refer to the form in which linguistic content is specified in a course or method’. Furthermore ‘All methods thus involve overt or covert decisions concerning the selection of language items (words, sentences pattern, tenses, constructions, function, topics etc.) that are to be used within a course or method. In the following explanation the writer will tell and try to focus on Richards and Rogers Model.

There are many theories in second language teaching which tried to explain on how the second language to be taught. One of the earliest theories was proposed by the American applied linguist Edward Antony in 1963. Another theory was proposed by Mackey in his book Language Teaching Analysis (1965). These are very popular in the model of teaching language in the 1960’s called Mackey’s Model. However, both models failed to explain the comprehensive model of teaching language. As Richards & Rodgers say: ‘ … it fails to give sufficient attention to the nature of method itself’. The role of the teachers and learners were not covered, and also how approach may be realized in a method, or how method and technique are related. Richards and Rodgers model will tell us the comprehensive model of teaching second language in the classroom.

In term of language theory, Richards & Rodgers mentioned that there are, at least, three different theoretical views of language and nature of language proficiency. The first is structural view, the view that language is a system of structurally related elements for coding of meaning. Language structure is the emphasis of teaching language. The second view is the functional view, the view that language is a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning. ‘This theory emphasizes the semantic and communicative dimension rather than merely the grammatical characteristics of language’ (Richards & Rodgers, 2001). A research has been done by Wilkin’s Notional Syllabus (1976) in order to identify the implications of this view of language for syllabus design.

The third view of language is interactional view. According to this view language is as a vehicle or tool for realization of interpersonal relations and for the performance of social transactions between individuals. In language teaching, the learners will get involved in social interaction or real conversation. According to Richards & Rodgers these three views are incomplete and need to be completed by theories of language learning. They tried to look at some theories of language learning. For example Monitor Model by Stephen D. Krashen (1981), Tracy D. Terrel”s Natural Approach (1977) and some other theories. These theories will influence teacher’s teaching style in the classroom. Richards & Rodgers said that teachers may develop their own teaching procedures, informed by a particular view of language and particular theory of learning.

In order to have further understanding, we will look at some points of Richards & Rodgers model. According to them design is necessary to be developed for an instructional system in order for an approach to lead to a method. They described design as; (a) what the objectives of a method are; (b) how language content is selected and organized within the method, that is, the syllabus model the method incorporates; (c) the types of learning tasks and teaching activities the method advocates; (d) the role of the learners; (e) the roles of teachers; and (f) the role of instructional materials. (Richards & Rodgers, 2001)

Furthermore, it is very important to set objectives in teaching language so that the learners’ language competence could be achieved easily. Method will be needed to gain the objectives. The method used will be varying based on the objectives set out.

Some methods focus primarily on oral skills and say that reading and writing skills are secondary and derive from transfer of oral skills. Some methods set out to teach general communication skills and give greater priority to the ability to express oneself meaningfully and to make oneself understood than to grammatical accuracy or perfect pronunciation. Others place a greater emphasis on accurate grammar and pronunciation from the very beginning. Some methods set out to reach the basic grammar and vocabulary of a language. Others may define their objectives less in linguistic term than in terms of learning behaviors, that is, in terms of the processes or abilities the learner is expected to acquire as a result of instruction. (Richards & Rodgers, 2001)

Therefore, the clear objectives will lead the teacher to the goals of language teaching in the classroom. Through the objectives the teacher, then, could use a particular method in language teaching.

The next important thing is syllabus, that is, the language content or materials what to talk about and how to talk about in language teaching. Richards & Rodgers (2001) say; ‘Methods typically differ in what they see as the relevant language and subject matter around which language teaching should be organized and the principles used in sequencing content within a course’. For example the Situational and Audiolingual method consists of a list of grammatical items and construction often together with an associated list of vocabulary items (Fries and Fries 1961; Alexander, Allen, Close, and O’Neill 1975). Notional – Functional Syllabus specify the communicative content of a course in terms of function, notions, topics, grammar, and vocabulary. However, the term of syllabus is less frequently used in process-based methods, in which considerations of language content are often secondary (Richards & Rodgers, 2001). For example in Counseling-Learning, the syllabus depends on the learners’ choice. They could decide the topics they want to talk about.

In addition, Richards & Rodgers explain about the types of learning and teaching activities in the classroom. According to them the objectives of the methods are attained through the instructional process, through the organized and directed interaction of the teachers, learners and materials in the classroom. It means that different method will have different kinds of language learning and teaching activity in the classroom.

In term of method analysis, Richards & Rodgers stated that there are three components of design. The first is learner roles which have important part in learning process. Richards & Rodgers say: ‘A method reflects explicit or implicit responses to questions concerning the learners’ contribution to the learning process’. Learners will also decide their learning program and what kind of activity they will do in the classroom. In supporting this idea, newer methodologies which more concern for learner roles and for variation among learners is stated by Johnson and Paulston (1976). They identify learner roles in the following terms:

(a) Learners plan their own learning program and thus ultimately assume responsibility for what they do in the classroom; (b) Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress; (c) Learners are members of a group and learn by interacting with others; (d) Learners tutor other learners; (e) Learners learn from the teacher, from other students, and from other teaching sources.

The second component is teacher roles that a teacher will influence the successful of the learning process in the classroom. It deals with how the teacher conducts the class and how she/he puts her/his functions for the learner. As Richards & Rodgers (2001) said that some methods are totally dependent on the teachers as a source of knowledge and directions; others see the teacher’s roles as catalyst, consultant, guide, and model for learning; ….’. In addition, Counseling-learning believes that the effectiveness of teacher’s roles will influence to the learners’ skills in learning the language.

The last component is the role of instructional materials. In designing the material it needs the teacher’s ability to choose what should be taught, in what situation and to what kind of students. To what objectives will be the materials are emphasis, it also defines the goals for language leaning in terms of speaking, listening, reading and writing skill. J.C Richard and T.S Rogers (2001) said that, “Materials designed on the assumption that learning is initiated and monitored by the teacher must meet quite different requirements from those designed for student self-instruction or for peer tutoring”. Furthermore Richards and Rogers (2001) said, “A particular design for an instructional system may imply a particular set of roles for materials in support of the syllabus and teachers and the learners. For example, the roles of instructional materials within functional/communicative methodology might be specified in the following terms:

1. Materials will focus on the communicative abilities of interpretation, expression, and negotiation.

2. Materials will focus on understandable, relevant, and interesting exchanges of information, rather than on the presentation of grammatical form.

3. Material will involve different kinds of text and different media, which the leaner can use to develop their competence through a variety of different activities and tasks”


The procedures in methodology is the actual step about techniques, practice and behaviors that is operates in teaching second language according to a particular method. How the activities in the teaching process are integrated into the lesson and used the basis for teaching and learning. According to J.C Richard and T.S Rogers (2001) they said, “There are three dimensions to a method at the level of procedures: (a) the use of teaching activities (drills, dialogues, information-gap activities, etc) to present new language and to clarify and demonstrate formal, communicative or other aspects of target language; (b) the way in which particular teaching activities are used to practice language; (c) the procedures and techniques used in giving feedback to learners concerning the forms and content of their utterance or sentences”.

Here below are examples of procedural aspects of beginning Silent Way according to Stevick (1980) cited in J.C Richard and T.S Rogers (2001):

1. The teacher points at the meaningless symbols on the wall chart. The symbols represent the syllables of spoken language. The students read the sound aloud, first in chorus and then individually.

2. After the students can pronounce the sounds, the teacher moves to a second of charts containing word frequently used in the language, including numbers. The teacher led the students to pronounce a long number.

3. The teacher uses colored rods together with charts and gestures to leads the students into producing the words and basic grammatical structures needed.

Understanding the concept of approach, design and procedures in relation to method, the activity in the class will be more relevant both for the teacher and for the students. Before teaching in a classroom the teacher should make a plan for the teaching and learning process. A teacher knows how to make concepts on approach and what will be emphasized in the teaching and learning process. In designing the materials the teacher should think about; objectives, syllabus, types of learning and teaching activities, learner role, teacher’s role, the role of instructional materials. The last thing that a language teacher should do is doing all the component of teaching and learning activities by procedures or doing the activities in the actual steps about techniques, practice and behavior that is operates in teaching second language according to the particular method.


Anthony, E. M. 1963. Approach, methode and technique. English Language Teaching 17: 63-67.

Fries, C. C., and A. C. Fries. 1961 Foundations for English Teaching. Tokyo: Kenkyusha.

Johnson, F., and C.B. Paulston. 1976. Individualizing in the language Classroom.

Cambridge, Mass.: Jacaranda.

Mangubhai, F. (2004) Methodology in teaching a second language. Study book, Distance Education Center, USQ, Toowoomba.

Richards, J.C., and Rodgers, T.S. 2001. The nature of approaches and methods in language teaching. In Approaches and methods in language teaching (2nd ed.,pp. 18-35). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Assignment 2

A. What is known about the processes of listening? Discuss factors, which affect the selection of listening activities for a group of second language learners?

Listening is one of the important language proficiencies that need to be concerned about. The learners will communicate with others and response the information based on the language input that they get through the listening process. According to Morley (1991):”Listening can be defined broadly as “everything that impinges on the human processing which mediates between sound and the construction of meaning …. “Moreover, “everything impinges … “includes the important dimension of the affective information, which is as integral part of real world communication.”

In the field of language teaching and learning, “listening” was neglected and supposed as unimportant part in teaching and learning language process. The most emphasis in teaching and learning language was on the structural or rules of the language. In the last twenty years, however, the ideas about language learning and language teaching have been changing along with the movements of the language theory. As Morley (1991) said that the status of listening began to change from one of neglect to one of increasing importance, as the instructional programs of 1970s expanded their pragmatic skills-focus on reading, writing, and speaking, to include listening. Listening became one of the main aspects to take account in the “modern-day or new era” of the language learning and language teaching. In the next explanation we will look at the process of listening and the important factors of listening.

There are two ways in teaching and learning language which are used in reading as well as in listening process. These two ways of language learning are often used by the teacher in classroom in order to lead the students reach the language proficiency that is hoped. Those are called “Bottom-Up and Top-Down” processing. Bottom-Up processing is the way on how the students analyze the sound into word then completely understand the whole meaning from the listening process. Top-Down processing is the way on how the students interpret the meaning of the sound through out the ears based on the experiences or knowledge. When the student has already heard the topic before, it will help the student understand about the topic. According to Mangubhai (2004) said that ‘Top-Down Processing is basically using your knowledge base to help you interpret the incoming aural input. In this conception, you are really sampling the incoming input to ensure that you are constructing the correct message in your head’ and ‘Bottom-up Processing is basically the idea that you first analyze the sounds into words, then into constituents, then into clauses to which you ascribe meanings. In this way of looking at listening comprehension, meaning resides in the sounds entering your ear which you analyze in order to derive the meaning’, Top-down and Bottom-up Processing are working together in a combine cooperative process for each second language learner. Furthermore, Murcia (1991) said that ‘Bottom-up comprehension of speech, then, refer top the part of the process in which the understanding of incoming language is work out proceeding from sounds, into words, into grammatical relationship and lexical meaning, and so on. The composite meaning of the message is arrived at based on the incoming language data’. According to Chaudron and Richards (1986) cited in Morley (1991) ‘Top-down processing involves prediction and inferencing on the basis of hierarchies of facts propositions, and expectations, and it enables the listener or the reader to bypass some aspects of bottom-up processing’.

In addition to this, there are some factors that should be known by the teacher in the listening activities. There are the source of the sound or speaker, the student him/herself, the material and visual support. Furthermore, Morley (1991) said that there are three perspectives on listening and language instruction, those are, listening to repeat, listening to understand, and listening as primary approach to second or foreign language learning. These factors will affect the selection of listening activities for the second language learner.

Listening to repeat means a teacher as a model gives an example on how to pronounce words, sentences or text and then the students follow a teacher on the right pronunciations. The other way on how listening to repeat is done by the learner, a teacher might show the other example of how to pronounce by taking the tape of native speaker from the audio tape or video and TV program which is relevant to the material being taught by the teacher. Not all teachers are native and have ability to pronounce native like so it is necessary for the teacher to get other way on how to give an example to their learner. This way is very important in the process of learning. Listening is a kind of process where the learner can imitate the right way on how to reproduce the sound given by teacher as a model or listening from tape or other kind of visual like TV, Video or film. According to Morley (1991), ‘Listening/repeating is also a technique used for pronunciation in order kinds of instructional formats. Here the learner is asked to listen, in order to “hear” a model (e.g., a sentence, a phrase, a word, a sound) and in order to reproduce it’. When the learner having chance to listen and imitate the right pronunciation in the form of a word, a phrase, a sentence will be easy for them to listen what the speaker say when they are communicating to other. As a result, a speaker understands what the learner said because they pronounce a word, a phrase and sentences in the right or good pronunciation.

Listening to understand, as other source components of knowledge such as reading, through listening the learner can get the experience to understand something. For example if they travel by using plane, they will hear the announcer at the airport says ‘The flight Qz907 to Sydney is now boarding’. When they hear that announcement, they soon come through the gate and than boarding to the aircraft. This is called learning to understand. If the learner want to know something they can read words, sentences, phrase, text or they can also listen to the talker/ speaker. If the learner lose or miss the information given by speaker/talker, he will loose one of the opportunities to do something. How the important of listening to understand is not only as example above many more the learner can do, especially the instruction asked to do by the teacher on doing the exercise and as others. To listen something the learner need a special skill on the listening comprehension. According to Morley (1991), there are ‘two basic types of expected student’s response:

1. The question-oriented response model, here the students are asked to listen to an oral text (e., a sentence, a dialog / conversation, a paragraph reading, talk or lecture, then answer a series of factual (quiz-style) comprehension question on the content in order to prove that they have understood. Questions are true false, multiple choice, fill-in-the blank, short answer and similar question type borrowed from traditional reading techniques.

2. The task-oriented response model. In the model, language task are set for students to complete, either individually or in small group collaborations. Basically the task are structured so that they make use of the information provided in the spoken text, not as an end in itself, but as resource to use in order to achieve a communicative task outcome. The primary lesson goal is to provide learner with guide listening task experience.

Listening as primary focus in the Comprehension approach to Second/ foreign language learning.

Different from other techniques of how the students acquire the language like reading, speaking and writing that is called oral production, Listening has special feature. Winitz (1981) cited in Murcia (1991) defined as follows: ‘in the comprehension approach a new system of learning is not really advocated. The instructional format is to extend the teaching interval of one component of training, comprehension, while delaying instruction or experience in speaking, reading, writing….the comprehension approach is cognitive in orientation. As used here, cognitive is defined as a system that gives students the opportunity to engage the problem-solving, the personal discovery of grammatical rules’

B. Design one lesson of 35-45 minutes in which you focus on developing the macro skill of listening and incorporate speaking as required.


Language : English

Subject : Listening

Class/ year : 3 / year 12

Level : SMK / Vocational High school

Topic : Advertisement

Lesson Length : 45 minutes

Objectives :

· Students are able to get the right information about the product in the advertisement.

· Students are able to match the picture with the right advertisement.

· Students are able to make advertisement in their own word.


What do you usually do before you do shopping? How do you get information of new products? Many of us make a shopping list and the others have fixed about what they are going to buy. Since they have got information from advertisements, it makes them easy to get what they need.

Activity 1

v You will hear four statements corresponding to the pictures in your book and choose the best statement that goes to each.

1.A B C D 2. A B C D

3. A B C D 4. A B C D

Activity 2

v You will read an advertisement of Nutrima. The sentences, however, are not well-ordered. Please rearrange them into a good advertisement.

a. It will make kids healthy and smart.

b. It's not so expensive and easy to get it in

any supermarket.

c. Nutrima Kid is very good for children.

d. It's rich with vitamins and calories.

Activity 4

v In groups of four, make persuasion to promote your products based on the pictures bellow.

1. 2.


Canale, M. & Swain, M (1980) Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics,1(1), pp1-47.

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional (Dirjen Dikdasmen, Dirjen Dimenjur) (2000), Global Acces to the World of Work. PPSKJ, Jakarta.

Mangubhai, F. (2004) Methodology in Teaching a Second Language, Study book, Distance Education Center, USQ, Toowoomba.

Morley, J. (1991) Listening comprehension in second/foreign language instruction. In Murcia, M.C. (Ed.), Teaching English as Second Language or Foreign Language (pp81-93) Heinle & Heinle Publisher, Boston, Massachusetts 02116.

Richards, J.C., and Rodgers, T.S. 2001. The nature of approaches and methods in language teaching. In Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching (2nd ed.,pp. 18-35). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

University of Southern Queensland, (2003) Audio Tape LIN 5002 Introduction to Course Distance Education Center, USQ, Toowoomba.

University of Southern Queensland, (2003) The Nature of Language (Selected Reading) Distance Education Center, USQ, Toowoomba.

Website http://langue.hyper.chubu.ac.jp./jalt/pub/tlt/00/feb/willis.html


Prepare two consecutive lessons of 45-60 minutes each in which you develop the macroskills of reading and writing. Your assignment will be assessed on how well you have managed to combine theory and practice. Design your lessons wisely so that they show your knowledge of theory and its application clearly in terms of language learning outcomes, such that another teacher could implement your lesson plan.


Teaching reading is one of the main language skills that should be thoughtfully by the language teacher. Before we decide the lesson plan of teaching reading, it is very important to know the concept of reading process. According to Manghubai (2004) “… the emphasis in reading was on the text, the meaning resided in the text-all one had to do was decode the text.” When the students were studying reading text, they will concern to the meaning of every single word in the text. This process of reading is called bottom-up processing.

While Goodman (1967.p.498) cited in Manghubai (2004,p. 4.4) says:

Reading is a selective process. It involves partial use of available minimal language cues selected from perceptual input on the basis of the reader’s expectation. As this partial information is processed, tentative decisions are made to be confirmed, rejected, or refined as reading progresses.

More simply stated, reading is a psycholinguistic guessing game. It involves an interaction between thought and language.

In addition, Manghubai (2004) says: “… children were not simply reading the printed word: they were actively constructing what they were reading in their heads.” They will understand the meaning of the reading text by using all of information they had in their heads. This process of reading is called top-down processing.

In the movement of teaching reading theory, researchers discovered the new perspective on reading process which is well known as interactive model of reading. As Manghubai (2004) said that in the process of reading, we use all of our sources of knowledge, the visual and also what we have in our heads to comprehend.


Writing became a common difficulty for the language learner. Writing is not only composing letters into a word and words into sentence. But it is comprehension process which involves knowledge and skills such as grammar, how to compose writing orderly, how to explore and express their ideas. In English second language learner, for example, it is very important for them to know how the native behavior in composing writing.

In the next explanation I will present lesson of reading and writing in class consecutively for 60 minutes each.



Level Of student: 3rd level of senior high school

Duration: 60 minutes

Pre Reading (Warm-up questions, 10 minutes)

In the beginning of the lesson, the teacher will show some pictures, symbols and clues about transportation means. Then the teacher will ask the students some questions and discuss about it for about 10 minutes. This process is very important to do in reading lesson in order to lead the students focus on the topic and collect all their knowledge about transportation. So they will be able to understand the meaning of reading text easily.

Reading the text and discuss (20 minutes)

The next step is reading the text. The teacher will ask some students to read the text. This activity will drill them how to read correctly and train them to understand the meaning of the text they were reading. The teacher will ask them to guess what they understand about the text. They will discuss with others and the teacher will guide them to understand the meaning of the text.

Asking objective questions (10 minutes)

In this section the students will answer the questions by state them true or false. This process will stimulate the student’s understanding about the text. Through this process the students are hoped to be able to understand completely and get all information of the text correctly.

Post reading (Answering essay questions – 20 minutes)

In this section the students are hoped to be able to answer the questions correctly as well as write in good structure.


Activity 1 (20 minutes)

In the beginning of the lesson the teacher will ask the students some vocabularies about transportation. Then ask them to complete the sentences using the appropriate words. In this activity the students will able to use their knowledge about some vocabularies on transportation. For the students who do not understand the meaning of the words, they can ask their friend or look up the dictionary and try to practice them in the sentences. So they get the right meaning of the words and understand how to use it in a sentence.

Activity 2

Students are asked to write a short conversation asking about “distance and transportation means”.

For example: How long does it takes ……………..?

How do you go to ……………..?

Activity 3

The next step is the teacher will ask the students to write one or two paragraph about transportation they use in their city/village. This topic will help students to write paragraph easily, because they have already had their knowledge and information about the topic in their heads. They just need to express and compose in a good writing.


Language : English


Class/ year : 3 / year 12

Level : SMK / Vocational High school


Lesson Length : 60 minutes X 2

Objectives :

  • Students are able to answer the warm-up question.
  • Students are able to understand the topic of the text correctly.
  • Students are able to answer the objective test correctly.
  • Students are able to answer the post reading question.
  • Students are able to understand some vocabularies about transportation.
  • Students are able to ask and answer questions about distance and transportation means.
  • Students are able to practice writing short paragraph about transportation.


Activity 1

Look at the picture and answer the warm-up questions! (Pre- reading)

  1. What do you know about transportation?
  2. Do you think transportation is necessary for all of us? Why?
  3. Mention some kinds of transportation that you know?

Activity 2

Read the text carefully!


In the business world, transportation is believed to be a vital means of conveying things and people. We all know that most of the business activities are closely dependent upon it to move goods faster from one place to another. So in terms of time it has drastically reduced distance and speeded up mobility.

There are several ways of transporting goods, but the three most important are by land, by sea and by air. Now let us know when and where each of them can be used effectively and efficiently.

Transport by land is very extensive in the home trade and continental countries. Road transport is fast over short distances. It is flexible with door to door delivery and no need a fixed timetable. Train transport is usually quicker than road transport for distances over 200 miles. Bulky goods such as coal can be transported cheaply by train.

Transport by sea is the most effective method for the countries which consist of many islands. Sea transport is much slower than air, but it is cheaper for goods and can carry heavier loads. Some goods such as oil are transported is specially-designed ships.

Transport by air is now increasing in scope. It is the quickest form of transport for international or long-cross country journeys. However, it is also expensive, particularly for example, transporting computers by air will be much cheaper than by ship if it is considered from every aspect.

Activity 3

Say whether these statements are TRUE (T) or FALSE (F) in your opinion.

  1. T – F Thousands of years ago, most of people had to walk because there was no transportation.
  2. T – F Nowadays, transportation has already become an integral part of our everyday life.
  3. T – F Transportation by road is very necessary in a country with many islands.
  4. T – F Almost everyone needs transportation when they go to distance places.
  5. T – F Transportation by sea is the most effective way in an archipelago country.
  6. T – F Transportation by air is very dangerous because it may cause a lot of accidents.
  7. T – F Transportation by air is the quickest form for international journeys.
  8. T – F It takes us only a few days to travel around the world by modern transportation.

Activity 4 (Post reading)

Answer the following questions base on the reading text above!

  1. What do you believe about transportation to be in the business world?
  2. Why do most of the business activities depend on transportation?
  3. What is the advantage of transportation in term of time?
  4. Where is transport by road and train widely used?
  5. What transport is the most effective for the countries with many islands?
  6. Why is the sea transport often used for carrying heavier loads to other countries?
  7. What is the quickest transport for international and long-cross country journey?
  8. What kinds of goods are often cheaper if they are sent by air?
  9. What does the word “it” in the first paragraph refers to?
  10. What is the main idea of the last paragraph?


Activity 1

Complete these sentences using the appropriate wards from the box.

trip voyage traveling

world transport bus station

journey passengers railway station

1. Buses, trains and cars are means of ………………………

2. When you want to go by bus, you go to a …………………

3. When you want to go bay train, you go to ………………..

4. When you are going to fly, you are one of the ……………..

5. By palne we can fly to most of places in the ………………..

6. We say then that we are going on a …………………….

7. When we go by boat, we call it a ………………………….

8. A journey which is not so long is called a …………………..

9. Going to other places is called ………………

Activity 2 (15 minutes)

Write questions and answers as the example.

A: How long does it takes by plane from London to Madrid?

B: It takes two hours by plane from London to Madrid.

A: How do we go to Tanjung Selor?

B: We go to Tanjung Selor by boat.

  1. (by car/Bandung/Bogor-four hours)
  2. (by boat/Bali/Lombok/went/I/to?
  3. (by train/Jakarta/Surabaya-eight hours)
  4. (bicycle/your house/your work-half an hour)
  5. (by bus/the city centre/the airport-fifty minutes)

Activity 3 (25 minutes)

Write a short paragraph about transportation in your city/village.


Departemen Pendidikan Nasional (Dirjen Dikdasmen, Dirjen Dimenjur) (2000), Global Acces to the World of Work. PPSKJ, Jakarta.

Goodman (1967.p.498). Reading: a psycholinguistic guessing game. Journal of the Reading Specialist. In Manghubai (2004,p. 4.4) Methodology in Teaching a Second Language, Study book, Distance Education Center, USQ, Toowoomba.

Lukman, D.,P.K. (2003). Step by Step 3. English for vocational school. Towards the world of professional workers. Humaniora Utama Press, BANDUNG.

Mangubhai, F. (2004) Methodology in Teaching a Second Language, Study book, Distance Education Center, USQ, Toowoomba.




Discussing about first language acquisition and second language acquisition is such a never-ending topic to discuss about. There have been a significant number of researches in child first language acquisition during the last forty years. Each of them came out with theory on how human (child in particular) learnt the language. There are three major researches on first language acquisition, which are very popular with the theory of nativist, behavioristic, and functional. Each of them tried to explain how the language is acquired in different point of views.

Based on the theory of first language acquisition, there might be similarities and differences in second language acquisition. There are some factors that we can compare and contrast in first language acquisition and second language acquisition. The comparison of first and second language acquisition can easily be oversimplified. At least we can approach the comparison by first considering the differences between children and adults. It is obviously stated that there are some considerations relating to psychomotor development, critical period hypothesis and neurological considerations. In addition, there are considerations relating to cognitive factors and linguistic factors. Furthermore, effective factors are also importance factor to compare and contrast. In order to focus discussion, I will lead my essay in comparing and contrasting child first language acquisition and adult second language acquisition against those five factors mentioned above.

Considerations Relating to Psychomotor Development

It is obviously true to say that the development of skill performance in every field required physical changes, the earlier child get skill training will be better result than start in adult. A football player, for example, will develop his physical maximally when he was child rather than he start to play football when he was adult. His physical skill in playing football developed naturally through the age.

It is the same case in language development, our speech need coordination of multiple muscles in thorax, throat, larynx, mouth, lips, tongue, and so on. In the period of three months to ten months, a baby usually start to produce sound which is called ‘cooing’ such as consonant (k) and (g) as well as high vowel such as (i) and (u). By six months, the child will grow up as well as the speech muscles. They can produce some sounds such as da-da, ma-ma, which is described as ‘babbling’. As a result they can manipulate muscles to produce sounds that reflect a language. These speech muscles gradually develop until neurological pathways have been developed facilitating the production of the sounds of the first language.

Adult second language learners have already developed their speech muscles pattern for their first language and have to begin consciously to develop another set of patterns for the second language. Just as previous example of untrained football player so he has to have an intensive training and exercise his muscles. The adult second language learners must be able to overcome the patterns that have been established by first language and learn to move differently for certain sounds in second language. Most of the adult second language learners will get difficulties in pronouncing sounds like a native speaker. Even in ideal acquisition situations, very few adult learners seem to reach native-like proficiency in using a second language. (George Yule, 1991, p.191) He stated that adults’ tongue ‘get stiff’ from pronouncing one type of language (e.g. English) and just can not cope with the new sounds of another language (e.g. French or Japanese). In the case of Indonesian English adult learners, for example, they rarely are able to speak like an English native speaker because their speech muscles have already developed in Indonesian mother tongue.

Critical Period Hypothesis and Neurological Considerations

One of the most debatable in second language acquisition is whether there is biologically determined critical period for language learning beyond which it is more difficult to acquire a language. Or to put it alternatively, whether there is critical age before which it is easier to acquire the language. The general belief is that during childhood (up until puberty), there is a period when the human brain is most ready to ‘receive’ and learn a particular language. This period is referred to as the critical period. If a child does not acquire language during this period for any one of a number of reasons, then s/he will have great difficulty learning language later on.

The most popular example of critical period hypothesis is the story of ‘Genie’, which has been documented by Curtiss (1977). Genie lived away from other social contacts even with her parent. The only contact is with her mother who gave her a little language input. Genie has spent her whole life in a state of physical, sensory, social and emotional deprivation. When she was first brought into care, she was unable to use language. Within a short period of time, however, she began to respond to the speech of others, to try to imitate sounds and to communicate. In fact she has got many difficulties and lacks of language outputs.

The issue of critical period is associated with brain lateralization, the term used to denote that neurological functions have been assigned to the two halves of the brain. Based on brain research we know that some functions are assigned to the right side of the brain while others, for example language, are assigned to the left side. Penfield and Roberts (1959) argued that the optimum age for language acquisition falls within the first ten years of life. During this period the brain retains plasticity, but with the onset of puberty this plasticity begins to disappear. Furthermore, they suggested that this was the result of the lateralization of the language function in the left hemisphere of the brain. That is, the neurological capacity for understanding and producing language, which initially involved both hemisphere of the brain. The increased difficulty which older learners supposedly experience was seen as a direct result of this neurological change.

Some evidence to support the critical period hypothesis was supplied by Lenneberg (1967). He found that injuries to the right hemisphere caused more language problems in children than in adults. He suggested that the process of lateralization begins at about age of two and is completed at around puberty, hence his suggestion of critical period at about puberty. The conclusion about a critical period was based on observation of patients who had suffered damage to the left hemisphere of the brain. It was found that if the patients were young, that is, had not reached puberty the chance that they would recover all language abilities were high. It seemed that the right hemisphere learned to do what the left did. On the other hand if the damage occurred after puberty then there was a strong likelihood that not all language functions would be regained. Krashen (1973) has argued that the lateralization process is complete by about the age of five because there are signs of hemisphere evident by then.

The debate over lateralization and its effects continue to be argued in the field of second language acquisition though most agree that if there were a critical period associated with lateralization of the brain it seems to affect pronunciation rather than the acquisition of syntax and semantic of second language. Scovel (1988,p.101) argues that pronunciation requires the operation of the neuromotor mechanism of brain resulting in physical movement, whereas the acquisition of syntax or lexis is not related to physical movements. They are exclusively cerebral and psychological.

Opposed to the arguments that seems to support some form of critical period hypothesis is the evidence from learners who might begin their second language later in his life but who acquire very high levels of syntactic knowledge (Birdsong, 1992), or native-like pronunciation (Bongaerts, Van Summeren, Planken & Schils, 1997).

From the evidence and arguments of some researchers above we can conclude that there is pro and contra about critical period hypothesis. However, these will be the advantages for language acquisition research. As Birdsong (1999, p.8) quoted on his book after he has surveyed the range of ideas in the different chapters presented by different researchers; “Each of these chapters, whether anti-or pro critical period hypothesis-second language acquisition, illustrates the richness, depth, and breadth of critical period inquiry. Collectively, they testify to the unmistakable centrality of CPH in L2A research”.

Considerations Relating to Cognitive Factors

Human cognition develops rapidly throughout the first sixteen years of life and less rapidly thereafter. The cognitive development of the child occurs at the same time that the language development occurs. Some cognitive changes are critical; others are more gradual and difficult to detect. According to the functional explanations of language development one could say that the child learns the next stage of language because the cognitive development demands that level of linguistic complexity. An adult, on the other hand, has already developed cognitively and has a language to express his or her thoughts.

One of the most significant arguments is given by Piaget on his research. In the early 1900s, Piaget followed the development of his three children. Piaget (see Piaget & Inheder, 1996) suggests that cognitive or intellectual development follows the following path;

· a sensori-motor stage between the ages of 0 and 2 years

· a pre-operational stage between ages 2 and 7

· a concrete operational stage from around 11 years

· a formal operational stage from around 11 years when children become capable to abstraction

According to Piaget a critical stage for a consideration of the effects of age on second language acquisition appears to occur at puberty. It is here that a person becomes capable of abstraction of formal thinking, which transcends concrete experience and direct perception.

One obvious difference between the young child and adult is the ability of the latter to comprehend language as a formal system. Adult learners can learn about language by consciously studying linguistic rules. They can also apply these rules when they use the language. In contrast, children are not so prone to respond to language as form. For them language is a tool for expressing meaning. As Halliday (1973) pointed out, the young child responds not so much to what language is as to what it does. It is possibly that age differences in second language acquisition can be explained in term of the different orientation to language of children and adults learners.

One could associate the formal operational stage to the critical period hypothesis and argue that learners at puberty begin to analyze the second language more consciously. It is for this reason that it has been argued that there is little value in teaching children the grammar of the language, which is an abstract system, until they rich puberty at which they can deal with abstractions. Adults, therefore, bring a superior cognitive apparatus to the task of second language learning but are often not very successful in this learning. Many adults are frustrated by their more developed capability for complex proportions (or ideas) with limited second language proficiency that prevents them from conveying them. In a sense, second language learners are reduced to operating cognitively at children’s levels of thinking. This is a great source of frustration for some adult learners.

Consideration Relating to Linguistic Factors

An adult second language learner is different from child in acquiring his/her first language. Adult second language learners already have a well-developed linguistic system. There are few documented examples of adults acquiring a second language naturalistically, which is not in a formal program in a classroom. Schmidt (1983) who studied a Japanese artist called Wes who had migrated from Tokyo to Hawaii documented one of the examples of adult second language acquisition. Wes showed little enthusiasm for any formal English language study. He prefers to acquire language naturally. Schmidt claims that during three years observation period Wes’s grammatical control of the English language barely improved and little grammar had been acquire. It was not the case that Wes kept himself separate from English speakers and only mixed socially with Japanese in Honolulu. On the other hand, Schmidt reports that he tended to eschew the company of Japanese and mix socially with the English-speaking people. Despite receiving large amounts of input, there was little grammatical development.

The effect of first language on second language acquisition is unavoidable as interference first language to second language. It is assumed that the second language learners would show the tendency to transfer first language features to their second language productions. Adults second language linguistic process are more vulnerable to the effect of the first language on second language. Adults more cognitively secure, appear to operate from solid foundation of the first language and thus manifest more interference. But it was pointed earlier that adults manifest errors not unlike some of the errors children make. It is now known, however, that not all errors made by second language learners caused by interference from their first language. There is also a greater awareness that first language interference manifest itself not only syntactic level, but also at phonological, morphological, lexical and pragmatic levels (James, 1980; Mangubhai, 1997).

Considerations Relating to Affective Factors

One of the most complex considerations in comparing and contrasting child first language acquisition and adult second language is relating to affective factors. This issue has been discussing by many researchers in second language acquisition. The results, however, are varies sorts of views because there is no one perfect answer against to this issue. At least we can conclude that these factors are such as self-esteem, inhibition, anxiety, attitude to speakers of the language one is learning, are exist in first and second language learners.

For most children the development of first language occurs within a very interesting environment where the children are the focus of the parents and other adults around them. During this period child has language ego as Brown (2000) stated that very young children are highly egocentric. The world revolves about them, and they see all events as focusing on themselves. It means that they do everything right, they speak the language properly. They do not care about the errors they make. Younger children are less frightened because they are less aware of language forms, and the possibility of making mistakes in those forms does not concern them greatly. Egocentricism is probably best in developing cognitive skills because there is no room for doubt oneself. The child does not see the viewpoint of others or take the role of another.

Adults, however, has acute awareness of self and how this self will be perceived by others. Comparison and judgements are made, sometimes erroneously, about other people and their ability and their self-concept. One of the behavioral outcomes of adults is that any occasion that might make a negative revelation about them is avoided or minimized. Hence adults learning a second language are less likely to see making mistakes as a normal part of second language learning. Those adults who have some difficulties initially in differentiating sounds of the second language may give up learning the language, quite frequently citing as an excuse not having a talent for languages. Seeming to appear foolish acts as a prohibitive factor in language learning for many adult learners.

In conclusion, comparing and contrasting child first language acquisition and adult second language acquisition are different in many aspects. Adults psychomotor have already developed by their first language, which caused difficulties in acquiring second language, while children do not have difficulties. Critical period hypothesis (CPH) exists, although some researchers have argued about it. And cognitively adults have advantages in learning language but children are less experiences and developing cognitive skill. In addition adults have a developed linguistic system background but it has interference, though, for second language acquisition. The last aspect, which commonly occurs, is affective factors. Adult learners tend to have high affective factors involved in acquiring the language. It is totally different from children who have high language ego, motivation, and good attitude to speak the language.


Brown, R. (1973). A first language. In Krahen, S.D. (Eds.). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall Macmillan, New York.

D’Anglejan, A. (1978). Language learning in and out of classroom. In Krahen, S.D. (Eds.). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall Macmillan, New York.

Dulay, H. and Burt, M. (1974). Natural sequences in child second language acquisition. In Krahen, S.D. (Eds.). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall Macmillan, New York.

Dulay, H. and Burt, M. (1975). A new approach to discovering universal strategies of child second language acquisition. In Krahen, S.D. (Eds.). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall Macmillan, New York.

Krashen, S.D. (1995). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall Macmillan, New York.

Mangubhai, F. (2003). Principles of Second Language Learning. Study Book, Distance Education Centre, USQ, Toowoomba.

Schachter, J. (1998). Recent research in language learning studies: promises and problems. In Mangubhai, F. (Eds.). Principles of Second Language Learning. Study Book, Distance Education Centre, USQ, Toowoomba.

Stevick, E. (1976) Memory, meaning, and method. In Krahen, S.D. (Eds.). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall Macmillan, New York.

The University of South Queensland (2003). Principles of Second Language Learning. Selected Readings, Distance Education Centre, USQ, Toowoomba.



Many researches have been done in the field of second language acquisition. It becomes new field for many experts in education and linguistics to do research. As Schachter (1998) cites in Francis Mangubhai (2003, p.4.1) who says: ‘Second language acquisition (SLA) is generally regarded as being young field, not more than 30 years old’. As a result, many theories about SLA were born. Each of them tried to look at the fact of how second language can be acquired. One theory may works and able to explain in some areas of SLA aspects, the other areas will be covered by the other theories. There is no one perfect theory in SLA, which can cover the whole aspects of SLA. However, we can find whether one theory, in a classroom process in particular, is working or not. In this case the author will look at one of the psycholinguistic theories that argued by Stephen D. Krashen. At last the author will look at the implications of this theory in second language teaching in a classroom process.

In explaining this theory Stephen D. Krashen divided his theory into five hypotheses, they are:

· The Learning/Acquisition Hypothesis

· The Natural Order Hypothesis

· The Monitor Hypothesis

· The Input Hypothesis

· The Affective Filter Hypothesis

Learning / Acquisition Hypothesis

Stephen D. Krashen makes the distinction between learning and acquisition. According to him (1995, p.10.) “there are two independent ways of developing ability in second languages. The first way is acquisition, a subsconcious process identical in all important ways to the process children utilize in acquiring their first language”. In subsconcious process we usually did not realize that we acquired the language, but we realize that we can use the language for communication. In acquiring the language, errors can be detected only by “feel”, it is correct, it sounds correct. In addition of it, acquisition is implicit learning, informal learning and natural learning.

The second way is learning, it is the opposite of acquisition process. According to Krashen (1995) “learning is conscious knowledge of second language”. The language is mastered by learning it. We learn the whole aspects and rules of the language. Error correction is thoughtfully in learning process. It will help the learner to the right form of the language rules. Krashen gave an example when a student of English as a second language says “I goes to school everyday”’ and a teacher will correct him/her by repeating the sentence in the correct way. Then the errors will not happen again in the future or in the next utterance.

From these two distinctions we can conclude that learning is separated from acquisition. It means that acquisition can not happen in learning process. Francis Mangubhai (2003) says “This hypothesis does not preclude the possibility of acquisition taking place in the classroom provided it is communicatively oriented and the focus of activities in the classroom is on meaning and not on practicing language structure”.

The Natural Order Hypothesis

This hypothesis (Krashen, 1995) believes that “the acquisition of grammatical structures proceeds in a predictable order”. The acquirers tend to acquire language rules in an order. For example in English structure, students in a classroom tend to acquire rule of present progressive, then move to another rules. As Brown (1973) in Krashen (1995) reported that “children acquiring English as a first language tended to acquire certain grammatical morphemes, or functions words, earlier than others. For example the progressive marker /ing/ and the plural marker /s/ were the first morphemes acquired, while the third person singular marker /s/ is typically acquired later”.

Another argument was delivered by Dulay and Burf (1974, 1975) in Krashen (1995) who reported that “children acquiring English as a second language also show ‘a natural order’ for grammatical morphemes regardless of their first language”. They found that the child second language order of acquisition was different from the first language order, but different group of second language acquirers showed striking similarities. At last Krashen conclude that “the order of acquisition from second language is not the same as the order of acquisition for first language, but there are some similarities”.(Krashen, 1995)

The Monitor Hypothesis

This hypothesis tells us about acquisition competence and learning competence. The utterances that we ‘pick-up’ came from the subsconcious process, that is, acquisition. Then learning will process the utterances through the monitor for correct utterances. As Krashen (1995) states on “the monitor hypothesis posits that acquisition “initiates” our utterances in a second language an is responsible for our fluency. Learning has only one function and that is as a monitor or editor. Learning comes into play only to make changes in the form of our utterances, after it has been “produced” by the acquired system. This can happen before we speak or write, or after (self-correction)”.

Furthermore, Krashen explain about the individual variation in monitor use for second language speakers. He divided into three types of monitor – users:

· Monitor over-users. This type of monitor users occurs when the people were speaking in second language with high control. While speaking they were always monitoring their utterances for correctness. As a result, (Krashen, 1995) “such performers may speak hesitantly, often self-correct in the middle of utterances, and are so concerned with correctness that they can not speak with any real fluency”.

· Monitor under-users. The speakers prefer not to use their conscious knowledge to control their utterances. They use feeling for correctness. Krashen (1995) says “under-user are typically uninfluenced by error correction, can self-correct only by using a “feel” for correctness”.

· The optimal monitor-users. The speakers are able to use their monitor appropriately. They know when they have to use monitor or not. This is very unusual in second language acquirers. If it occurs, “we might consider these people “super monitor users” cites Yorio (1978) in Krashen (1995, p.19.).

The Input Hypothesis

Stephen D. Krashen took a long discussion on the input hypothesis. He tried to explain and correlated his other hypothesis with the input hypothesis. Perhaps this hypothesis is the most significant Krashen’s theories in explaining how people acquire the language. He says;”[t]he input hypothesis attempts to answer what is perhaps the most important question in our field, and gives an answer that has a potential impact on all areas of language learning”.(Krashen, 1995, p.20.)

In order to simplify the discussion, the author will only take some points of the input hypothesis as follows:

· We acquire the language through the natural order, that is, we move from one stage to the next stage. Or as Krashen says: ”More generally, how do we move from stage i, where I represents current competence, to i + 1, the next level?”

· The input is comprehensive, in this case the role of “caretaker speech” will influence the language outcome (utterances). Krashen says: “The input hypothesis predicts that caretaker speech will be very useful for the child”. The more child get comprehensible input, the higher stage will be, move from i to i + 1.

The Affective Filter Hypothesis

This hypothesis tells us about how affective factors relate to the second language acquisition process. Krashen (1995, p. 31.) mentioned three categories:

1. Motivation. Performers with high motivation generally do better in second language acquisition (usually, but not always, “integrative”).

2. Self – confidence. Perfomers with self-confidence and a good self-image tend to do better in second language.

3. Anxiety. Low anxiety appears to be conducive to second language acquisition, whether measured as personal or classroom anxiety.

Krashen also called those three categories as attitudinal factors, which directly relate to acquisition and not learning. The strength or level of affective filters will influence the acquirers’ utterances. As Krashen (1995) mentions: “Those whose attitudes are not optimal for second language acquisition, will not only tend to seek less input, but they will also have a high or strong Affective Filter-even if they understand the message, the input will not reach that part of the brain responsible for language acquisition or the language acquisition device”.

Furthermore, he said that ‘those with attitudes more conducive to second language acquisition will not only seek and obtain more input, they will also have a lower or weaker filter. They will be more open to the input, and it will stike ‘deeper’”.(Stevick, 1976) cites in Krashen (1995, p. 31.)

The Implications of Krashen’s Hypothesis in Second Language Teaching in A Classroom

After reading and analyzing those hypotheses above, the author finds some implications of those hypotheses, which relate to the second language teaching in a classroom. Based on the experience of the author in teaching second language (English) in a classroom, those hypotheses seem working in some areas or aspects of teaching second language in a classroom. The author will try to explain and describe the implications briefly, and support it with simple examples, which occur in teaching and learning process in a classroom as bellow.

First of all, we will look back to the distinction between acquisition and learning made by Krashen (1995). The distinction was very clear, and according to him “learning does not become acquisition” cites Mangubhai (2003). However, when we look at the learning process of second language in a classroom, the author finds difficulties in differentiating both learning and acquisition. It seemed both learning and acquisition were running together along with the process of teaching language in a classroom. Both subconscious and conscious processes occur slightly in the same time. Therefore, Mangubhai (2003, p. 4.6.) “…it is very difficult to distinguish learning and acquisition to be able to conduct some research on it”. Or as McLaughlinn (1978; 1987) cites in Mangubhai (2003, p. 4.6.) “has put it there needs to be some objective way of knowing the difference between the two so that one can apply the test of falsifiability. Alternative frameworks have been suggested by critics that explain how learning can become acquisition, if acquisition is defined as more fluent (i.e. more automatic) language behaviour”.

The next is the implication of the natural order hypothesis in teaching second language in a classroom. In very simple sight, the author sees that the students were learning the language (English) in an order. For example, the students usually start learning with some expression of simple present or present continuous tense with marked “ing”. Then they will try to recognize another marks of language rules such as /s/ for plural and third person singular mark. As Brown (1973) reported in Krashen (1995) who says,”children acquiring English as first language tended to acquire certain grammatical morphemes, or function words, earlier than others”. In addition of it, Krashen (1995) sees “ the order of acquisition for second language is not the same as the order of acquisition for first language, but there are some similarities”. Perhaps we can also look at how the child (our child in particular) acquired the first language. Seemed to the author that they acquired the first language in an order, started form simple words, morphemes moved to another ones, as well as students learn the language in a classroom.

When we look at how the monitor hypothesis working in teaching language in a classroom, the author found some students who have good knowledge in English, if we look at the test achievements, but they could not speak fluently. Because, they were afraid of being mistaken, and tried to speak in correct English structure. Or there are some students who could speak English very confidence and fluent. Although there are some mistakes occurred in the utterances, but they neglected of being mistaken. Based on these facts, the author believes that the monitor hypothesis implement in teaching second language in a classroom. However, Mangubhai (2003) it has been pointed out that “it is frequently difficult to tell whether a person is monitoring using a ‘feel’ for the language (i.e. using the acquired system) or using the learned system”, cited from (d’Anglejean, 1981; Rivers, 1980).

The last two hypotheses are input hypothesis and affective filter. The author will look at the implications of these two hypotheses in one session. Because according to the author both hypotheses have correlation with language input. The most interesting point in input hypothesis is the role of ‘caretaker speech’. In a classroom, teacher perhaps the most significant environment who gave students much more input. There are some students also who could not optimize their attitudinal factors such as motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety. Therefore,“[t]hose who attitudes are not optimal for second language acquisition will not only seek less input, but they will also have a high strong Affective Filter – even if they understand the message, the input will not reach that part of the brain responsible for language acquisition, or the language devices. Those with attitudes more conducive to second language acquisition will not only seek obtain more input, they will also have a lower or weaker filter. They will be more open to the input, and it will strike ‘deeper’”.(Stevick, 1976) in Krashen (1995)

Those are some implications that the author could see in the process of second language acquisition in the classroom. Even though, there are many other theories in second language acquisition, which might be implementable in classroom process. Because there is no one perfect theory which can covered or explain the whole areas of second language acquisition field. As Larsen-Freeman (1997) suggests that SLA is, like some sciences, complex and non-linear. Just as multiplicity of factors make it difficult to predict weather accurately, so the various factors involved in SLA also make predictions about SLA difficult. Yet, like weather forecasters, we have to use the best knowledge we have at hand, as we seek to predict what the possible outcomes in a particular language learning context might be”.(Mangubhai, 2003, p. 4.1.)

As a complementary the author will quote Krashen’s statement on his Introduction: The Relationship of Theory to Practice, which is very good for the progress of second language acquisition research.

The solution to our problems in language teaching lies not in expensive equipment, exotic methods, sophisticated linguistic analyses, or new laboratories, but in full utilization of what we already have, speakers of the languages using them for the real communication. I will also conclude that the best method might also be the most pleasant, and that, strange as it seems, language acquisition occurs when language is used for what it was designed for, communication. (Krashen, 1995, p. 1.)


Brown, R. (1973). A first language. In Krahen, S.D. (Eds.). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall Macmillan, New York.

D’Anglejan, A. (1978). Language learning in and out of classroom. In Krahen, S.D. (Eds.). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall Macmillan, New York.

Dulay, H. and Burt, M. (1974). Natural sequences in child second language acquisition. In Krahen, S.D. (Eds.). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall Macmillan, New York.

Dulay, H. and Burt, M. (1975). A new approach to discovering universal strategies of child second language acquisition. In Krahen, S.D. (Eds.). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall Macmillan, New York.

Krashen, S.D. (1995). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall Macmillan, New York.

Mangubhai, F. (2003). Principles of Second Language Learning. Study Book, Distance Education Centre, USQ, Toowoomba.

Schachter, J. (1998). Recent research in language learning studies: promises and problems. In Mangubhai, F. (Eds.). Principles of Second Language Learning. Study Book, Distance Education Centre, USQ, Toowoomba.

Stevick, E. (1976) Memory, meaning, and method. In Krahen, S.D. (Eds.). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall Macmillan, New York.

The University of South Queensland (2003). Principles of Second Language Learning. Selected Readings, Distance Education Centre, USQ, Toowoomba.